此文转自[中关村在线]原创,作者：李刚 若有侵权，请联系本站，我们将及时处理 This article transferred from [Zhongguancun Online] original author: Li Gang If there is any infringement, please contact this site, we will deal with it in time 导语：以第四次工业革命、革新制造业之名，3D打印技术一度被推上神坛，然而至今并不大的市场规模（全球百亿美金）让从业者似乎看不清未来，GE、HP、西门子等体量较大的世界500强公司也在推动变革，不过3D打印给人的印象是，似乎什么都能做，似乎也做不了什么。 Lead: In the name of the fourth industrial revolution and innovative manufacturing, 3D printing technology was once pushed to the altar, but the market size (global billion dollars) so far has made it difficult for practitioners to see the future, GE, The world's top 500 companies such as HP and Siemens are also driving change, but 3D printing gives the impression that everything seems to be done and it seems that nothing can be done. 3D打印一个人的头像能产生什么价值呢？What value can 3D print a person's avatar produce? 3D打印技术造房子3D printing technology to build a house 今天要写这篇文章的目的也很简单，我们每天看到的新闻，打印火箭、打印汽车、打印房子、打印人体关节、打印细胞、打印文物、打印家具等等，3D打印似乎无所不能，但是这些新闻的技术应用是概念炒作还是未来方向，包括我在内的大众其实很难判断，我们该怎么去利用好这些技术，从哪里入手仍然是一个不太好回答的问题。 The purpose of writing this article today is also very simple. The news we see every day, printing rockets, printing cars, printing houses, printing human joints, printing cells, printing artifacts, printing furniture, etc., 3D printing seems to be omnipotent, But the technical application of these news is conceptual speculation or the future direction. The public, including me, is actually very difficult to judge. How to use these technologies, and where to start is still a problem that is not very good. FDM技术打印出不同颜色的物品FDM technology prints different colors of items 所以这篇文章的初衷还是希望大家更加理性客观的去理解3D打印技术，了解技术的应用，之前写过关于全彩3D打印的分享《挑战色彩管理极限 揭秘3D打印彩色物体》，今天主要和大家聊的是3D打印技术里最容易使用、最基础的技术，也就是FDM技术，下面结合我过去6年接触和使用FDM技术和产品的理解，还有周围朋友将FDM玩到极致的DBS以及康湿傅等人，让我对FDM技术的理解更加深刻。 Therefore, the original intention of this article is to hope that everyone can understand 3D printing technology more rationally and objectively, understand the application of technology, and previously wrote about the full color 3D printing sharing "Challenge color management limit secret 3D printing color object", today and everyone Talking about the easiest and most basic technology in 3D printing technology, namely FDM technology, the following combines my understanding of FDM technology and products in the past 6 years, and the friends around the world who play FDM to the ultimate DBS and Kang Wet Fu et al., let me understand the FDM technology more deeply. 笔者当年见到第一台3D system的Cube打印出来的小瓶子I saw the small bottle printed by the first 3D system Cube. 首先要和大家分享一个概念，3D打印技术学名增材制造，是一类技术的统称，根据技术原理、材料以及应用的不同，技术类型又分为7大类，小的细分技术数十种，这些技术的共通点都是将三维模型离散为二维切片数据，然后逐层堆积或烧结固化材料，最终将三维数据变为立体实物。 First of all, we must share with you a concept, 3D printing technology, scientific name, additive manufacturing, is a general term for a class of technology, according to different technical principles, materials and applications, the technology types are divided into 7 categories, dozens of small subdivision techniques The common point of these technologies is to discretize the 3D model into 2D slice data, and then stack or sinter the solidified material layer by layer, and finally transform the 3D data into a solid object. FDM双头双色打印打印的双色模型 Two-color model of FDM double-headed two-color printing 3D打印技术一定不能万能，客观来讲，它最初是为了实现快速原型而发明的，随着技术和材料的发展，现在在向工业化的直接制造发展，无论是工业4.0还是国家提倡的《中国制造2025》，都离不开这个技术，这项技术与传统的机加工、模具注塑、金属注塑（MIM）等技术工艺一样，能够应对更复杂和优化的设计、单件和小批量加工，有一定的技术特点，与其它工艺应该是互补的关系，目前还不能臆断的去讲3D打印技术可以替代传统工艺，可以理解为是一种面对客户的定制化需求、快速原型以及优化设计的快速加工工艺和技术。 3D printing technology must not be omnipotent. Objectively speaking, it was originally invented for rapid prototyping. With the development of technology and materials, it is now developing towards industrial direct manufacturing, whether it is Industry 4.0 or the state-promoted "Made in China". 2025" is inseparable from this technology. This technology, like traditional machining, mold injection, metal injection molding (MIM), can handle more complex and optimized designs, single-piece and small-batch processing. The technical characteristics and other processes should be complementary. At present, it can not be said that 3D printing technology can replace traditional technology. It can be understood as a kind of customization demand, rapid prototyping and rapid design of optimized design. Process and technology. 2011年之前的FDM打印机是这个样子The FDM printer before 2011 is like this. 我们最容易接触的3D打印细分技术之一是FDM技术（熔融堆积），所使用的材料大部分是高分子线材，比如廉价稳定的PLA、ABS等，但是也有物理性能更好的材料，比如复合碳纤维、尼龙、PEEK、PC、PP等材料，由于该技术门槛低，最廉价的有几百元的硬件，但是定位工业应用FDM设备数百万，然而仍然有不少人认为这个技术太初级，没有什么技术门槛，和激光烧结技术、喷射类技术、光固化技术相比，略微有点LOW，但是我却不这么认为。 One of the most easily accessible 3D printing subdivision techniques is FDM technology (melt deposition). Most of the materials used are polymer wires, such as inexpensive and stable PLA, ABS, etc., but also have better physical properties, such as Composite carbon fiber, nylon, PEEK, PC, PP and other materials, due to the low threshold of this technology, the cheapest is a few hundred dollars of hardware, but the positioning of industrial applications FDM equipment millions, but there are still many people think this technology is too primary There is no technical threshold. Compared with laser sintering technology, jet technology and light curing technology, it is slightly LOW, but I don't think so. 3D打印和航空航天关联最多的案例是3D打印航空发动机叶片或者喷油组件，然而东方航空的技术公司早已经利用FDM 3D打印技术来进行飞机客舱内的配件维修和更换，所使用的材料ULTEM 9085是一种通过美国联邦航空管理局认证的材料，具有很好的强重比和阻燃性。 The most common case of 3D printing and aerospace association is 3D printing of aero-engine blades or fuel injection components. However, Eastern Airlines technology companies have already used FDM 3D printing technology to repair and replace parts in aircraft cabins. The material used is ULTEM 9085. It is a material certified by the US Federal Aviation Administration with good weight-to-weight ratio and flame retardancy. 东方航空技术公司利用FDM技术打印的座椅书报架Oriental Aerospace Technology Corporation uses FDM technology to print the seat magazine rack 截止到2017年，东方航空技术有限公司增材制造实验室开发出客舱零件30多种，共生产了500多件成品零件装配在飞机客舱内，实现了飞机上标准零件的快速制造和定制化零件的设计、开发、生产，解决了过去易损零件订货周期长订货成本高的问题。 As of 2017, the Eastern Aviation Technology Co., Ltd. additive manufacturing laboratory has developed more than 30 cabin parts, and more than 500 finished parts have been assembled in the aircraft cabin to realize the rapid manufacture and customization of standard parts on the aircraft. The design, development and production have solved the problem of high ordering cost in the past. 东方航空技术公司利用FDM技术打印iPad支架，用于查阅飞行手册Eastern Airlines Technologies uses FDM technology to print iPad holders for use in consulting flight manuals 上次采访东航维修公司的时候，他们在使用一台Stratasys Fortus 450在进行飞机客舱内饰零件的生产，一台设备就已经产生不小的经济效应。 When I interviewed China Eastern Airlines' maintenance company last time, they were using a Stratasys Fortus 450 to produce aircraft cabin interior parts. One piece of equipment has already produced a lot of economic effects. 东方航空技术公司利用FDM技术打印iPad支架，用于查阅飞行手册 Eastern Airlines Technologies uses FDM technology to print iPad holders for use in consulting flight manuals 所以，我们大部分人对FDM技术和材料的理解还处于比较初级的阶段，而在实际的应用中，具有一定生产能力的FDM技术3D打印机已经很好的完成了从实验到商业的转化。 Therefore, most of us understand the FDM technology and materials at a relatively early stage, and in practical applications, FDM technology 3D printers with a certain production capacity have already completed the transformation from experiment to business. 汽车工业的规模和产值在制造业占有极为重要的位置，汽车的生产制造也正在经历着诸多变革。在生产线上，优化部门既要保证生产不停，又要完成对工装夹具的优化和试装，相信不少车厂都会遇到同类的问题。 The scale and output value of the automotive industry occupy an extremely important position in the manufacturing industry, and the manufacturing of automobiles is undergoing many changes. In the production line, the optimization department must ensure that the production is not stopped, but also to complete the optimization and trial installation of the fixtures. I believe many car manufacturers will encounter similar problems. 北京奔驰在利用FDM技术3D打印进行工装夹具优化Beijing Benz is using FDM technology 3D printing for tooling fixture optimization 北京奔驰的工具车间打印的一个量具模型A gage model printed by Beijing Benz's tool shop 我们知道北京奔驰在用FDM技术3D打印机进行工装夹具和量具的设计优化，而通用汽车已使用3D打印用于产品开发三十多年，并且在过去的十年中，使用3D打印技术生产了超过250000个零部件。 We know that Beijing Benz is optimizing the design of fixtures and gauges with FDM technology 3D printers, and GM has used 3D printing for product development for more than 30 years, and over the past decade, using 3D printing technology has produced more than 250,000 parts. 通用利用3D打印机打印工装夹具Universal use 3D printer to print fixtures 金属3D打印直接制造的金属零件，设计优化更重要Metal parts made directly from metal 3D printing, design optimization is more important 全新的零件设计，与原来的部件相比，重量减少40%，机械强度提高20%，原有的8个组装零件变为1个，从而实现了无需组装、一体化成型。 The new part design reduces the weight by 40% and the mechanical strength by 20% compared with the original parts. The original eight assembled parts become one, thus eliminating the need for assembly and integration. 宝马i8Roadster的软顶采用3D打印铝制部件，呈Z字型折叠，通过粉末床金属3D打印技术制造的轻量化支架也随着i8Roadster的批量化生产而进入到量产领域。 The soft top of the BMW i8Roadster is made of 3D printed aluminum parts and is zigzag-folded. The lightweight bracket made by the powder bed metal 3D printing technology has also entered the mass production field with the mass production of the i8Roadster. XEV利用FDM技术打印电动车的车体结构和内饰件，输出3D打印生产线XEV uses FDM technology to print the body structure and interior parts of electric vehicles, and output 3D printing production line 除了这些大厂之外，中国电动车公司也在利用3D打印技术进行汽车制造，世界首款量产3D打印电动车LSEV由意大利电动车制造商XElectricalVehicle(XEV)与中国3D打印厂商Polymaker公司合作制造，然而据了解XEV这家公司的主要业务是输出3D打印汽车的生产解决方案。 In addition to these large manufacturers, Chinese electric vehicle companies are also using 3D printing technology for automobile manufacturing. The world's first mass-produced 3D printed electric vehicle LSEV is manufactured by Italian electric vehicle manufacturer Electronic Vehicle (XEV) in cooperation with Chinese 3D printing manufacturer Polymaker. However, it is understood that the main business of XEV is the production solution for outputting 3D printing cars. XEV的内饰零件也是3D打印的XEV interior parts are also 3D printed 在汽车工业中，几乎所有的车企都在利用3D打印技术积极优化设计验证和终极生产效率，并最终用于零件的制造。可以预想到的是，汽车工业中不仅需要金属3D打印技术，还需要大型FDM技术或者专业级的FDM打印机，比如MarkForged的碳纤维3D打印机。 In the automotive industry, almost all car companies are using 3D printing technology to actively optimize design verification and ultimate production efficiency, and ultimately used in the manufacture of parts. It is expected that the automotive industry will not only require metal 3D printing technology, but also large FDM technology or professional-grade FDM printers, such as MarkForged's carbon fiber 3D printer. 当提到金属3D打印的时候，业内大部分会认为SLM技术（激光烧结金属粉末）或者EBM（电子束烧结金属粉末）技术是主流，然而该技术的工业级3D打印机的使用门槛还是比较高的。 When it comes to metal 3D printing, most of the industry thinks that SLM technology (laser sintered metal powder) or EBM (electron beam sintered metal powder) technology is the mainstream, but the threshold of the industrial-grade 3D printer of this technology is still relatively high. . FDM技术结合MIM工艺打印金属零件FDM technology combined with MIM process to print metal parts FDM技术同样能够制造金属零件，目前有两大类利用FDM技术来生产金属零件，一种是用FDM技术打印可以用失蜡法铸造的模具，然后用传统这铸造工艺来进行小批量金属件的生产。 FDM technology can also manufacture metal parts. There are two major types of FDM technology to produce metal parts. One is to use FDM technology to print molds that can be cast by lost wax method, and then use traditional casting technology to make small batches of metal parts. produce. FDM技术结合MIM工艺打印金属零件，烧结之后的金属零件成品FDM technology combined with MIM process to print metal parts, finished metal parts after sintering 还有一类工艺是利用FDM技术结合MIM工艺，也就是像Desktop Metal或MarkForged的方案，直接打印金属注塑材料，然后清洗、烧结，最终产出金属零件。 Another type of process is the use of FDM technology combined with the MIM process, that is, a solution like Desktop Metal or MarkForged, which directly prints metal injection molding materials, then cleans and sinters, and finally produces metal parts. FDM技术结合MIM工艺打印金属零件（左：金属件；右：绿坯）FDM technology combined with MIM process to print metal parts (left: metal parts; right: green blank) MarkForged Metal X打印的金属零件MarkForged Metal X Printed metal parts MarkForged Metal X打印的金属零件 MarkForged Metal X Printed metal parts FDM技术打印的PolyCast材料进行金属铸造PolyCast material printed by FDM technology for metal casting FDM技术打印的PolyCast材料进行金属铸造PolyCast material printed by FDM technology for metal casting FDM技术打印的PolyCast材料进行金属铸造PolyCast material printed by FDM technology for metal casting 无论是铸造还是金属注塑工艺，都是将传统技术、材料和FDM技术进行了结合，所以目前FDM技术是可以用于金属零件的生产加工，优势是硬件更灵活，成本更低。 Whether it is casting or metal injection molding, traditional technology, materials and FDM technology are combined. Therefore, FDM technology can be used for the production and processing of metal parts. The advantage is that the hardware is more flexible and the cost is lower. PEEK，学名聚醚醚酮，英文名称polyetheretherketone（简称PEEK），它是分子主链中含有链节的线性芳香族高分子化合物。其构成单位为氧-对亚苯基-氧-羰-对亚苯基，是半结晶性、热塑性塑料。 PEEK, the scientific name polyetheretherketone, the English name polyetheretherketone (referred to as PEEK), is a linear aromatic polymer compound containing chain links in the molecular backbone. Its constituent unit is oxy-p-phenylene-oxy-carbonyl-p-phenylene, which is a semi-crystalline, thermoplastic. FDM技术打印PEEK零件FDM technology to print PEEK parts 聚醚醚酮(PEEK)树脂是一种性能优异的特种工程塑料，与其他特种工程塑料相比具有更多显著优势，耐正高温260度、机械性能优异、自润滑性好、耐化学品腐蚀、阻燃、耐剥离性、耐磨性、不耐强硝酸、浓硫酸、抗辐射、超强的机械性能可用于高端的机械、核工程和航空等科技。 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin is a special engineering plastic with excellent performance. It has more significant advantages than other special engineering plastics. It has high temperature resistance of 260 degrees, excellent mechanical properties, good self-lubricating property and chemical corrosion resistance. , flame retardant, peeling resistance, wear resistance, strong resistance to strong nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, radiation resistance, superior mechanical properties can be used in high-end machinery, nuclear engineering and aviation technology. FDM技术打印PEEK零件FDM technology to print PEEK parts PEEK这种材料不仅物理特性好，而且具有非常好的生物兼容性，能够像钛合金一样作为人体植入物来使用。 PEEK is a material that has good physical properties and is very biocompatible and can be used as a human implant like titanium. FDM技术打印PEEK零件FDM technology to print PEEK parts 目前，不少FDM技术的企业已经推出了针对PEEK材料的3D打印机，结合PEEK这种性能卓越的热塑性材料进行个性化零件的加工和生产，比如德国的Apium，要加工PEEK这种材料，打印机要具备高温、恒温和高精度加工能力。 At present, many FDM technology companies have launched 3D printers for PEEK materials, combined with PEEK, a high-performance thermoplastic material for the processing and production of individual parts. For example, Apium in Germany, to process PEEK, the printer must High temperature, constant temperature and high precision processing capability. 前面聊的是具有一定生产能力的工业级FDM技术的3D打印机的应用价值，下面，我举三个利用普通的桌面级FDM 3D打印机来进行创作的例子，因为桌面机价格和使用门槛都很低，对大部分个人都能去使用，但是有的人能用来创作大型作品，有的人比如我，也就能打一些小玩意，在专业玩家手里，依旧能产生巨大的价值，再次证明了FDM技术的3D打印机并不LOW，只是我们大部分人没有将它的价值发挥到最大。 I talked about the application value of 3D printers with industrial-grade FDM technology with a certain production capacity. Below, I will give three examples of using ordinary desktop-level FDM 3D printers for creation, because desktop prices and usage thresholds are very low. It can be used by most individuals, but some people can use it to create large-scale works. Some people, like me, can also play some gadgets. In the hands of professional players, they can still generate great value. The 3D printer for FDM technology is not LOW, but most of us don't maximize its value. 康湿傅制作的1:1钢铁侠机甲 1:1 Iron Man Machine 康湿傅花费了近10年的时间，利用FDM技术3D打印机完成了可穿戴带交互的1:1钢铁侠机甲的开发和制作，在此过程中，付出了巨大的心血和精力，当我们看到成品的时候，你很难想象，这就是一套用最普通的FDM 3D打印机完成的开发和制造。 It took nearly 10 years to complete the development and production of the 1:1 Iron Man machine with the wearable and interactive 3D printer. In the process, I paid a lot of effort and energy when we saw the finished product. It's hard to imagine that this is a set of developments and manufacturing done with the most common FDM 3D printers. FDM技术3D打印机打印的全部零件All parts printed by FDM technology 3D printer 喷漆后的钢铁侠机甲零件Iron Man's Mech Parts after painting 同样是使用FDM技术3D打印机来打印The same is to use FDM technology 3D printer to print 在此过程中，@康康康湿傅还是借助FDM技术3D打印机完成了大量电影道具的开发工作，积累了3D打印和影视实体道具开发的全部经验和技术储备。 In this process, the development of a large number of movie props was completed by means of FDM technology 3D printer, and all the experience and technical reserves of 3D printing and film and television entity prop development were accumulated. 艺术家刘泳岐在2015年帮助艺人欧豪身穿的机械外骨骼设定，这套机械外骨骼经过三维设计，整套装备80%的零件经过数十台FDM 3D打印机不分昼夜的打印了上百组零件，然后进行精工装配，呈现了未来战士的先锋科技感。 In 2015, artist Liu Yongying helped the artist to set up the mechanical exoskeleton. The mechanical exoskeleton was designed in three dimensions. The entire set of 80% parts was printed on dozens of FDM 3D printers, and hundreds of parts were printed day and night. And then carry out the precision assembly, presenting the pioneering sense of science and technology of the future warriors. 打印机械外骨骼的FDM技术3D打印机FDM technology 3D printer for printing mechanical exoskeleton 利用FDM打印技术制作的机械外骨骼Mechanical exoskeleton made with FDM printing technology 它创作的时间是在2015年，3D打印行业应该没有太多人关注到这个项目，而欧豪穿的这套机械外骨骼的零件，大部分由FDM 3D打印机制作完成，在没做任何表面处理的情况下毫无粗糙感和违和感，这需要对FDM技术有非常好的理解才可以发挥到很极致。 It was created in 2015. There should not be too many people paying attention to this project in the 3D printing industry, and most of the mechanical exoskeleton parts worn by Ou Hao are made by FDM 3D printer without any surface treatment. There is no sense of roughness and disobedience in the case, which requires a very good understanding of FDM technology to be able to play to the extreme. 欧豪MV中的道具机械外骨骼Prop mechanical exoskeleton in the Ou Hao MV 关于3D打印和设计，这个项目负责人刘泳岐的理解是：“design这个词很多人说是包豪斯定义的，不管是谁定义，设计其实就是在那个背景应运而生，而工业革命和两次世界大战的大时代命运，人们不得不加快生产效率，设计是一种迫切的目的，所以引发新一轮的工具和材料的变革，人们发明各种设备在各种行业里从事更快更“好”的生产，所以设计一开始就是目的为先不是理念为先。而3D打印算是一个新的工具的发明，如何使用它的经验方法就是3D打印设计，3D打印的料性、特征、机理、以及效率等因素需要不断洗刷从前的工业设备及材料认识，所以3D打印一定会帮助更多设计师，同时也会破坏一定的平衡，比如我经常会思考的一个问题是传统行业是该保留还是该灭亡”。 Regarding 3D printing and design, Liu Yongzheng, the person in charge of the project, understands that “the word design is said to be defined by Bauhaus. No matter who defines it, the design actually came into being in that background, and the industrial revolution and the two times. The great destiny of the world war, people have to speed up production efficiency, design is an urgent purpose, so trigger a new round of tools and materials to change, people invent various equipment to engage in faster and better in various industries. "The production, so the design is the beginning is not the idea first. And 3D printing is a new tool invention, how to use it's empirical method is 3D printing design, 3D printing material, characteristics, mechanism, and Factors such as efficiency need to constantly clean up the previous industrial equipment and materials, so 3D printing will definitely help more designers, and it will also break a certain balance. For example, one question I often think about is whether the traditional industry should retain or die. ". 近期，张飞打印正式发布了曾侯乙编钟交互装置，去年开启的项目暂时告一段落，这套编钟复制品看上去近乎接近于原品，而且还能发声，整体以FDM 3D打印打印技术为主，辅助使用交互芯片，最终实现一个与两千多年前编钟发声相同的互动媒体装置。 Recently, Zhang Fei Printing officially released the Zeng Houyi chime interactive device. The project opened last year has come to an end. This set of chime replicas looks almost close to the original, and can also sound, the overall FDM 3D printing and printing technology , assisted in the use of interactive chips, and ultimately achieve an interactive media device that is the same as the chime of more than two thousand years ago. 3D打印编钟交互装置3D printing chime interaction device 以闻名遐迩的“曾侯乙编钟”作为原始参照模型，在尊重国之重器时，创新出更具时代气息的3D打印编钟。钮钟，形体上取曾侯乙钮钟造型，钟体铭文替换成“北京工业大学艺术设计学院”以作纪念。 The famous "Zeng Houyi chime" as the original reference model, in the respect of the country's heavyweight, to create a more contemporary 3D printing chimes. Button clock, the shape of the body was taken by Zeng Houyi button clock, the inscription of the bell body was replaced by "Beijing University of Technology College of Art and Design" as a commemoration. 利用FDM 3D打印技术机型实体制造Manufactured using FDM 3D printing technology 利用FDM 3D打印技术机型实体制造Manufactured using FDM 3D printing technology 张飞打印过去利用FDM 3D打印技术制做了大量的艺术装置和作品，包括《马上张飞》、《李小龙》、《玛丽莲梦露》等等太多数不过来，每年带着学生利用FDM 3D打印机进行毕业作品的创作。最终呈现出来的作品，将我们带回到历史的那个年代，重新思考艺术与创新、艺术与技术。 Zhang Fei printed a lot of art installations and works using FDM 3D printing technology, including "Zhang Fei", "Li Xiaolong", "Marilyn Monroe", etc., too many years, with students using FDM 3D every year. The printer creates the graduation work. The resulting works bring us back to the age of history and rethink art and innovation, art and technology. 结语：再次重申一下我的观点，3D打印并非万能，而FDM技术的3D打印也没有大家想象中和认知中的那么低端，我们更多的应该去思考，这项技术应该用在哪里，怎么去发挥技术和材料的特性，最终带来价值。然而，无一例外的是，我们看到的这些成果，使用者和他们的团队在背后都付出了巨大的心血，无论是创意和设计层面的思考，还是对技术的理解，以及最后的精细化处理和涂装，结合了先进技术和传统工艺的优势，在我看来，这就是创新的关键所在，所以，请让我们心怀敬畏之心参与到创新加工的时代中。 Conclusion: I reiterate my point of view, 3D printing is not a panacea, and 3D printing of FDM technology is not as low-end as people think and cognition. We should think more about where this technology should be used. How to use the characteristics of technology and materials, and ultimately bring value. However, without exception, the results we see, the users and their teams have put a lot of effort behind them, both at the creative and design level, on the understanding of technology, and finally the refinement. Processing and painting combine the advantages of advanced technology and traditional craftsmanship. In my opinion, this is the key to innovation. Therefore, please let us participate in the era of innovative processing with awe.
3D printing is not a panacea FDM technology is not so LOW_Share a good article
8月 15, 2018